Krill Oil is a rich source of omega-3 and omega-9 fatty acids. In addition, krill oil has a high content in phospholipids, which are themselves rich in omega-3 fatty acids. We used 90 subjects to test what effect Krill Oil would have on inflammation due to Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis, as measured by C-Reactive Protein and the WOMAC test.
Phospholipids are important in protecting membranes from toxic injury and free radical attack. The composition of phospholipids in Krill Oil appears to be optimal to offer such protection. Further, Krill Oil contains high quantities of the powerful biological antioxidants astaxanthin and canthaxanthin. Astaxanthin has shown better antioxidant activity than alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, lycopene and lutein. Krill Oil also contains a flavonoid with a novel molecular structure. Flavonoids have been studied for more than 60 years but had not been extracted until now from anything other than plants, vegetables, fruits and algae. The antioxidant activity of flavonoids has previously been shown. Krill Oil is extremely resistant to oxidation, with peroxide values less than 0.1 units for more than 50 hours at 97.8 degrees C.
Because of the remarkable complexity of the multiple bioactive components of Krill Oil, the exact mechanism of action is still being studied. We speculate that it is based on the inhibition of prostacyclin (PGs, PGI2), and thromboxane (TXs) and leukotrines by interfering at the level of the cyclooxygenase or the lipoxygenase pathways. This works directly through the mechanism of pain in order to reduce inflammation and subsequently pain.
The effect of Krill Oil on joint pain, flexibility and stiffness was assessed at baseline and at 7, 14, and 30-day follow-up visits. Successful demonstration of an enhanced effect may provide a basis for clinical use of Krill Oil in patients with inflammatory disease. 90 subjects were randomly assigned to either Krill Oil or placebo administration. At baseline and at 7, 14, and 30-day follow-up visits, blood was drawn for serum CRP analysis and patients were asked to complete the Western Ontario and McMaster (WOMAC) University Osteoarthritis index. WOMAC was administered to validate the CRP results.
Table 1: C-Reactive Protein (CRP) mg/dl by Group and Visit
|NKO 300 mg/day||Placebo|
|% Change from Baseline||-19.3%||15.7%|
|% Change from Baseline||-29.7%||32.1%|
|% Change from Baseline||-30.9%||25.1%|
Table 2: Change in Mean WOMAC Score after 30 Days
|NKO 300 mg/day||Placebo|
|Functional Impairment||30 Days||-35.93%||-6.71%|
The results of the study clearly indicate within a high level of certainty that Krill Oil at a daily dose of 300 mg may within a short time to reaction (7-30 days):
Deutsch L; Evaluation of the Effect of Neptune Krill Oil on Chronic Inflammation and Arthritic Symptoms; Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 26, No. 1, 39-48 (2007 Apr).
Sampalis T, Evaluation of the Effect of NKO on Biomarkers of Chronic Inflammation in vivo. JSS medical research, inc. June 9, 2004, pre-publication.