Concluding with his recent unpublished study, Dr. Di Marzo discussed how prolonged dietary krill oil lowers plasma anandamide and TG levels in obese human males. Body measures included a 3% reduction in: abdominal fat, waist/hip ratio, and total body fat, accompanied by a 1% increase in muscle mass by the end of this 24 week study. Rejuvenation Science® Biom3ga™ Krill Oil provides the exact formulation used in this human study.
Omega-3 PUFAs ameliorate metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of dietary omega-3 supplementation, given as krill oil, on metabolic parameters in two animal models and a human clinical study. Results show dietary krill oil significantly reduces peripheral vs. central endocannabinoid (EC) overactivity in obesity and might represent a much safer approach than CB1 antagonists to counteract the life-threatening metabolic disturbances that are caused in part by EC dysregulation in organs controlling energy metabolism.
The endocannabinoid (EC) system is comprised of a group of lipids (fats) and receptors that act within the nervous system to help modulate a number of physiological processes including appetite and mood. Obese persons have elevated levels of plasma ECs compared to healthy weight individuals. In one recent human study, healthy weight, overweight, and obese subjects were given two grams of krill oil, fish oil, or olive oil per day for four weeks. The findings demonstrated for the first time that when given in the form of krill oil, a relatively low dose of phospholipid-based omega-3 fatty acids have beneficial effects on EC levels in obese persons.
These conclusions are especially interesting as they confirm previous outcomes with krill oil in obese animals.A research team at the University of Salento, Lecce, Italy, recently published a study of the effects of krill oil on the lipid metabolism in rats. The animals were treated for 6 weeks with diets containing 2.5% krill oil or 2.5% fish oil, or a control diet without supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids. The study revealed fat-lowering effects from the omega-3 supplements, confirming that the phospholipid-based omega-3 fatty acids found in krill oil are effective in reducing liver triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Krill oil reduced liver triglycerides by 20% compared to 10% in the fish oil group. In addition, cholesterol levels were decreased by 33% (krill oil) and 21% (fish oil).
According to Nils Hoem, PhD, Chief Scientist at Aker BioMarine, “Changes in endocannabinoid levels may be an important factor involved in potential long-term health issues, including metabolic syndrome. It is important to note that the study suggests that the phospholipid form of omega-3 fatty acids found in krill oil was responsible for the beneficial effects observed.”
Concluding with his recently completed, but unpublished study, Dr. Di Marzo discussed how prolonged dietary krill oil lowers plasma anandamide and TG levels in obese males (BMI~32, n=10). Body measures included a 3% reduction in abdominal fat, waist/hip ratio, and total body fat, accompanied by a 1% increase in muscle mass by the end of this 24 week human study. Plasma changes included a 10-20% increase in various omega-3 levels, insulin levels, and a 30% decrease in TAG level.
Research Director (tenure position equivalent to full professor) at the Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, National Research Council, Naples, Italy, 2002-
Adjunct Associate Professor, Dept of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Medical College, Virginia Commonwealth University, 1999-
Coordinator of the Endocannabinoid Research Group, Naples, Italy, 1995-
Co-author of over 400 articles published in peer-reviewed journals
British Journal of Pharmacology, 2004-
Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 2001-
Critical Reviews in Neuroscience, 2003-
Recent Patents in CNS Drug Discovery, 2006-
Dr. Di Marzo coined in 1994 the term “endocannabinoid” for endogenous agonists of cannabinoid receptors.
He also participated in the first studies on the role of the endocannabinoid system in food intake and on the anti-obesity effects of rimonabant in congenitally obese mice (Di Marzo et al., Nature, 2001).
In addition, Dr. Di Marzo put forward the hypothesis of the overactive endocannabinoid system in obesity and hyperglycemia (Di Marzo and Matias, Nat. Neurosci., 2005).
Banni, et. al., Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects.
Nutrition & Metabolism 2011, 8:7 is available online at: http://www.nutritionandmetabolism.com/content/8/1/7.
Ferramosca et al., A krill oil supplemented diet reduced the activities of the mitochondrial tricarboxylate carrier and of the cytosolic lipogenic enzymes in rats. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 2011, 95 (3), is available online at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2011.01135.x/abstract